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Pumpkin seeds are an edible seed typically roasted for consumption. They are a common ingredient in Mexican cuisine and are often eaten as a healthful snack.
They are sometimes referred to as pepitas, Spanish for “little seed of squash.”
This feature is part of a collection of articles on the health benefits of popular foods.
It looks at the possible health benefits of pumpkin seeds, the nutritional content, how to use pumpkin seeds in the diet, and possible health risks.
Pumpkin seeds are a good source of healthful oils, magnesium, and other nutrients that enhance the health of the heart, bones, and other functions.
Seeds, in general, are considered excellent sourcesTrusted Source of potassium, magnesium, and calcium.
Plant seeds are also a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants.
The fatty acids in pumpkin seeds contain a rangeTrusted Source of beneficial nutrients, such as sterols, squalene, and tocopherols. Researchers have described the fatty acid profile of seeds, grains, and legumes as “favorable.”
Pumpkin seeds are a good source of magnesium, which is important for bone formation.
High magnesium intake is associated withTrusted Source a greater bone density and has been shown to decrease the risk of osteoporosis in women after menopause.
Nutrients in pumpkins seeds, like sunflower seeds, may help protect against type 2 diabetes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in the development of diabetes, and antioxidants may help reduce the risk.
In one experiment, diabetic rats started to recoveTrusted Sourcer after following a diet containing a flax and pumpkin seed mixture.
The seeds are a good source of magnesium.
Studies have suggested that for every 100 milligrams (mg) a day increase in magnesium intake, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes decreases by approximately 15 percentTrusted Source.
A 100-gram (g) serving of pumpkin seed kernel can contain over 90 mg of magnesium.
Low magnesium levels can impair insulin secretion and lower insulin sensitivity.
Improvement in lipid profiles has been seen with an intake of 365 milligrams of magnesium per day.
Heart and liver health
Pumpkin seeds contain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, antioxidants, and fiber. This combination has benefitsTrusted Source for both the heart and liver.
The fiber in pumpkin seeds helps lower the total amount of cholesterol in the blood and decrease the risk of heart disease.
Research to date suggests that omega-3s can:
decrease the risk of thrombosis and arrhythmias, which lead to heart attack, stroke, and sudden cardiac death
reduce LDL, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels
reduce atherosclerosis, a fatty buildup on the artery walls
improve endothelial function, a measure of circulatory health
slightly lower blood pressure
Pumpkin seeds have been found to contain sterols. In one investigation, scientists found that there were 265 mg of total sterolsTrusted Source in every 100 g of pumpkin seed kernel.
Plant sterols and phytosterols are known to help reduce levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol.
Researchers carrying out a review of clinical trials concludedTrusted Source in 2013 that the combination of nutrients found in plant seeds can help protect the cardiovascular system and help prevent coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
A rodent study has suggested that the nutrients in a mixture of flax and pumpkin seeds could provide some protectionTrusted Source for the liver and also against atherosclerosis.
Weight loss and digestion
Other benefits of a diet that is high in fiber includeTrusted Source:
helping maintain a healthy weight, because the individual feels full for longer after eating
enhancing digestive health
The immune system
Pumpkin seed oil has a high contentTrusted Source of vitamin E and other antioxidants.
Vitamin E helps strengthenTrusted Source the immune system and maintain healthy blood vessels. The ODS recommend eating seeds as a source of vitamin E.
Pumpkin seeds are a rich source of tryptophan, an amino acid.
Tryptophan has been used to treat chronic insomnia because the body converts it into serotonin, the “feel-good” or “relaxing” hormone, and melatonin, the “sleep hormone.”
A study published in 2005 in Nutritional Neuroscience suggested thatTrusted Source consuming tryptophan from a gourd seed alongside a carbohydrate source was comparable to pharmaceutical grade tryptophan for the treatment of insomnia.
Having a few pumpkin seeds before bed, with a small amount of carbohydrates such as a piece of fruit, may be beneficial in providing your body with the tryptophan needed for melatonin production.
Pumpkin seeds are a good source of zinc, as well as peanut.
Researchers have determined that every 100 g of pumpkins seeds contains 7.99 mg of zinc.
For male adults aged 19 years and above, the ODS recommendTrusted Source a daily intake of 11 mg of zinc and 8 mg for women.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that over 80 percentTrusted Source of women worldwide have an inadequate zinc intake. Low levels of zinc alter circulating levels of multiple hormones associated with the onset of labor.
Nutritionists recommendTrusted Source additional zinc during pregnancy, as it is likely to improve health outcomes.
Zinc is also essentialTrusted Source for normal immune function and prevention of uterine infections. All of these could potentially contribute to preterm delivery.
Non-refined pumpkin seed oil is thought to offer antioxidant protection.
This is due to its PUFA and lipophilic antioxidant content. Refining an oil removes or reduces these substances.
Antioxidants are considered to beTrusted Source “scavengers,”tasked with removing unwanted waste substances known as free radicals. If these substances remain in the body, there is a higher risk of a range of health problems.
Antioxidants have a wide rangeTrusted Source of uses, including reducing inflammation. One study, published in 1995, found that, in rats with arthritis, symptoms improved after taking pumpkin seed oil.
A German study, published in 2012, suggested thatTrusted Source a high consumption of pumpkin seeds may be linked to a lower risk of breast cancer after menopause.
Skin and eye health
Pumpkin seeds are a good source of squalene, an antioxidant compound that is similar to beta-carotene.
Squalene occurs throughout all body tissues, and it appears to play a role in protecting the skin during UV and other types of radiation exposure.
Animal studies have also suggested that squalene may play an important role in retinal health.
Squalene may also offer protectionTrusted Source from cancer, but more research is needed to prove this.
Sexual, prostate, and urinary health
Pumpkin seeds have traditionally been used as an aphrodisiac in some places. In an in-house study at Mansoura University in Egypt, rats consumed a pumpkin seed extract combined with zinc.
The researchers concluded that pumpkin seeds may have a beneficial effect on sexual health status.
A study published in 2009 suggested thatTrusted Source pumpkin seed oil may be safe and effective as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Those who consumed 320 mg a day of the oil over 6 months saw a reduction in their symptoms and improved quality of life.
In 2014, scientists found evidenceTrusted Source that pumpkin seed oil might help treat urinary disorders in men and women. Treatment with the oil was linked to a reduction in symptoms of an overactive bladder.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database, a 100-g serving of organic pumpkin seeds containsTrusted Source:
15 g of carbohydrate (including 0 g of sugar and 17.9 g of fiber)
5 mg of protein
21.43 g of fat, of which 3.57 is saturated
20 mg of calcium
0.9 g of iron
1 g of saturated fatty acids
A 100-gram serving of one brand’s in-shell, salted, roasted pumpkin seeds providesTrusted Source:
4 g carbohydrate (including 3.6 g of fiber and 3.57 g of sugar)
32.14 g of protein
42.86 g of fat, of which 8.93 g is saturated
71 mg of calcium
16.07 mg of iron
571 g of sodium
Pumpkin seeds are also a source of magnesium, zinc, copper, and selenium.
One scientific study has found that 100 g of pumpkin seeds contains:
7.99 mg of zinc
9.76 mg of iron
78.18 mg of calcium
90.69 mg of magnesium
20.56 mg of sodium
According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), seeds are good sourcesTrusted Source of magnesium, one of the seven essential macrominerals.
In one study, scientists found that 100 grams (g) of pumpkin seeds contained 90.69 milligrams (mg) of magnesium.
The ODS recommend thatTrusted Source males aged 19 to 30 years should consume 400 mg of magnesium a day, and females 310 mg or 350 mg during pregnancy. Older people should have a slightly higher intake.
Magnesium plays an important role in over 300 enzymatic reactions within the body, including the metabolism of food and synthesis of fatty acids and proteins. Magnesium is vital for the proper functioning of muscles.
Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in older populations. It is linked to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis.